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Marsyas: The Man Who Dared to Challenge Apollo

Apollo and Marsyas John Melhuish Strudwick (1849–1937) National Museum Wales, National Museum Cardiff

Marsyas is a legendary figure from Greek mythology renowned for his audacious challenge to the god Apollo. Marsyas was a satyr renowned for his musical virtuosity and mastery of the double flute. His confidence in his abilities was so immense that he felt as though he could even outplay the gods.

This pattern of arrogance and retribution is often repeated in Greek mythology. One example can be seen with Athena and Arachne, a mortal who dared to proclaim her ability to weave was far superior to that of the goddess herself.

Time and time again, mortals have painfully discovered that defying a god is an ill-advised endeavor. In this blog post, we’ll explore this fascinating story – from its beginnings as an epic musical rivalry between god and man to its tragic ending. 

The Story of Marsyas and Apollo

Athena and the Aulos

Marsyas was a Phrygian satyr, an ancient creature from Greek folklore with the head and torso of a man and the legs of a goat.

His misfortune began the day he came upon a divine double flute (Aulos), which had been carelessly discarded by the goddess Athena. It is said that she abandoned this instrument as she was displeased or mocked due to her cheek puffed playing it.

Marsyas was in love with the instrument and immediately recognized his talent. He dedicated himself to mastering it, spending countless hours practicing for him to reach his full potential. Much to Marsyas’ delight, he eventually became so skilled that he truly believed his ability matched even those of a god!

Marsyas painting from Elihu Vedder (1836–1923), Young Marsyas (Marsyas Enchanting the Hares) (1878), oil on canvas
Elihu Vedder (1836–1923), Young Marsyas (Marsyas Enchanting the Hares) (1878), oil on canvas

Apollo and Marsyas: The Music Contest

Marsyas, with a level of confidence that bordered on arrogance, proposed a musical challenge to Apollo – the celebrated god of music and the most talented musician amongst all gods.

Apollo accepted Marsyas’ challenge and the two contestants agreed on a set of rules. Marsyas would play first and Apollo would then follow with the same piece on a different instrument.

Apollo played his stringed cithara while Marsyas blew on his double-pipe aulos. Apollo and Marsyas engaged in a music contest, with their musical exchange captivating the audience as they took turns showcasing their talents.

The Contest between Apollo and Marsyas is a painting by Filippo Lauri which — Panuary 12th, 2017.
The Contest between Apollo and Marsyas is a painting by Filippo Lauri

The Ultimate Result of the Challenge

For years, people have been telling the same story about this competition but with different twists. However, all stories converge at one point – in their endings.

In one telling, Marsyas and Apollo both performed splendidly in the first round of competition; so much so that the judges declared Marsyas victorious! Nonetheless, Apollo would have dexterously flipped his instrument upside down to play a similar tune or sung with accompaniment from his lyre. In another version, Apollo would have sung on top of playing with his cithara.

Unfortunately for poor old Marsyas, despite giving it all he had within him – not only was unable to flip his aulos around but singing just wasn’t an option while playing pipes- there simply was no chance of competing against such mastery by Apollo – God of Music himself!

Apollo punishment: The Price of Vanity and Pride

Apollo cruelly punished Marsya for his insolent challenge of a deity by hanging him on a lofty tree and flaying him alive. The legend said that Marya’s skin was transformed into a wineskin or publicly displayed.

The sight of the body was so heartbreaking that it caused all the local villagers and rustic deities to weep, their tears flooding a river that would later be named for the satyr.

The Moral of Marsyas Story

The moral of the Myth of Marsyas and Apollo is an important lesson about the dangers of hubris and pride. It serves as a cautionary tale, reminding us of what can happen when arrogant mortals try to outplay the gods. In this case, Marsyas’ foolishness resulted in his tragic death.

But even though his fate was cruel and unjust, perhaps the gods respected Marsyas for his ambition, determination, and courage to take on a divinely ordained task – if only for a moment.

Not all tales have such an unhappy ending though – some tales show mortals being able to outwit the gods and live happily ever after! No matter the outcome though, it is clear that defying a god is not something to be taken lightly.

Though in the case of Marsyas, it did not end quite as he would have liked. As they say: be careful what you wish for! The moral of this story? Don’t mess with the gods…

The Modern Relevance of Marsyas

Though he was defeated by Apollo, the story of Marsyas is one that still speaks to us today. In a way, he represents the eternal struggle between the individual and society.

On the one hand, you have Marsyas, who represents the lone wolf, the outlier, the one who dares to challenge the status quo. He’s the rebel, the maverick, and in many ways, he embodies the spirit of creativity and innovation.

On the other hand, you have Apollo, who represents the establishment, convention, and tradition. He’s the one who upholds the status quo and doesn’t tolerate dissent.

So what does this story tell us about society? Well, it tells us that there will always be tension between those who want to hold onto tradition and those who want to forge their own path. It’s a tension that exists in every era and in every culture.

But perhaps more importantly, it also tells us that creativity and innovation should be celebrated. After all, it was Marsyas’ creative approach to playing his instrument that won him the admiration of the audience. So even though he ultimately lost in his challenge against Apollo, we can still learn a lot from his daring spirit and never-give-up attitude.

We can learn that even when you’re up against impossible odds and the outcome isn’t certain, it’s still worth taking risks and pushing yourself to your limits – because, in the end, you never know what might happen. That’s the lesson of Marsyas.


While Marsyas ultimately lost his life because of his arrogance, his legend lives on. And, as we’ve seen, there are many lessons that we can take away from his story.

When it comes to taking risks, it’s important to weigh the potential rewards against the potential risks. Is the reward worth the risk? In Marsyas’s case, he clearly thought so. And while it didn’t work out for him in the end, we can’t help but admire his courage.

Finally, Marsyas’s story is a reminder that even if we fail, we can still leave a lasting legacy. His story has been passed down for millennia, and it’s still being told today. And who knows? Maybe his story will inspire someone else to take a risk and challenge the status quo.



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